Along the outside edge of the ovary, several tiny fluid sacs form in people with PCOS. These are known as cysts. Immature eggs are present in the tiny cysts filled with fluid called follicles. These follicles don’t consistently release eggs.

In women between the ages of 17 and 45, the prevalence of PCOS is thought to range between 5.5% and 12.6% globally. Depending on the diagnostic criteria applied, prevalence estimates for India range from 8.2% to 22.5%. One of the main reasons why women struggle with infertility is PCOS.

What Are The Symptoms?

PCOS symptoms frequently appear around the time of the first menstrual cycle. Sometimes, after having periods for a while, symptoms appear later. The syndromes are sometimes different in PCOD patients. When you exhibit at least two of them, a medical practitioner will diagnose you with PCOD.

Infrequent Periods: PCOS is frequently accompanied with irregular or infrequent menstrual cycles. The same goes for having periods that last many days or longer than is customary for a period. You might, for instance, have less than nine periods per year. Additionally, such times could be spaced apart by more than 35 days. It is also possible for you to face difficulty getting pregnant if the diagnosis is severe.

Excess Androgen: Extra facial and body hair may come from high androgen levels, known as hirsutism. Additionally, male-pattern baldness and severe acne can occur occasionally.

Ovaries with cysts: You might have larger ovaries. Around the ovary’s border, tiny follicles containing immature eggs may appear. The ovaries may not function properly.The signs and symptoms of PCOS are often more severe in people with Obesity.There is no known precise cause of PCOS. There are several variables that could be involved, including:

Insulin resistance: The pancreas creates the insulin hormone. It enables cells to utilise sugar, which is the body’s main source of energy. Blood sugar levels may rise if cells develop an immunity to insulin’s effects. To lower the blood sugar level, this may lead to your body producing more insulin.Your body may produce too much androgen if you have an excessive insulin level. The act of releasing eggs from the ovary, known as ovulation, may be difficult for you. Dark, velvety patches of skin around the breasts, in the crotch, or under the armpits are some areas of the body where insulin resistance can be seen. Other indications could include an increased appetite and weight gain.

Low-grade inflammation: In reaction to an infection or injury, white blood cells produce various chemicals. The reaction is referred to as low-grade inflammation. According to research, patients with PCOS experience a specific kind of chronic, low-grade inflammation that causes their polycystic ovaries to manufacture androgens. Heart and blood vascular issues may result from this.

Heredity: According to research, several genes may be connected to PCOS. A family history of PCOS may increase your risk of having the disease.

Excessive androgen: The ovaries may create a lot of androgens if you have PCOS. Ovulation is hampered by this excess of androgen. This indicates that the follicles in which the eggs are developed don’t release them regularly. Acne and hirsutism are further side effects of too much androgen.


Among the PCOS complications are:
  • Infertility
  • Pregnancy-related high blood pressure or gestational diabetes
  • Early or unsuccessful pregnancies
  • Fat accumulation in the liver is the cause of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, a severe form of liver inflammation.
  • High blood pressure, high blood sugar, and unhealthy cholesterol or triglyceride levels are all parts of the metabolic syndrome, which greatly raises the risk of cardiovascular (heart and blood vessel) illness.
  • Both prediabetes and type 2 diabetes
  • Sleep apnea
  • Eating disorders, anxiety, and depression
  • The uterine lining can develop cancer (endometrial cancer)

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